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Why are women living longer than men?

Ferne Sisk (2022-04-23)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so much longer than men today and why have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? The evidence is sketchy and we're left with only some answers. Although we know that there are biological, psychological and environmental factors that play an integral role in women who live longer than males, we aren't sure how much each factor contributes.

6 years agoWe have learned that women live longer than males, افضل شامبو وبلسم ( regardless of weight. However, this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - this means that in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a new boy.1

This chart is interesting in that it shows that the advantage of women exists across all countries, the global differences are significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men, while in Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

In rich countries the longevity advantage for women was not as great.
We will now examine the way that female advantages in longevity has changed over time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the time of birth in the US between 1790-2014. Two points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in the United States live longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: افضل شامبو وبلسم female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very modest however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

You can confirm that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.