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Why are women living longer than men?

Wilford Tufnell (2022-04-23)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live much longer than men today, and why has this advantage increased over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make a definitive conclusion. We know there are biological, behavioral as well as environmental factors that play an integral role in women who live longer than men, we don't know the extent to which each factor اوضاع الجماع plays a role.

We are aware that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. But, this is not because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, اوضاع الجماع like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line - which means that in every country that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart shows that, while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the difference is less than half a calendar year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was smaller in countries with higher incomes than it is today.
Let's look at how the female advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart plots the male and female lifespans at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two areas stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in the US live much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small however, it has increased significantly during the last century.

By selecting 'Change Country by country' in the chart, you will be able to check that these two points are applicable to the other countries having available data: Sweden, France and the UK.Beauty-Cream-font-b-Serum-b-font-Anti-Ag