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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Ferne Sisk (2022-04-22)

N26454160A_1.jpgEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present and why is this difference growing over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to support a definitive conclusion. While we are aware that there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors which all play a part in women who live longer than men, we do not know how much each one contributes.

It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. However this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can expect to live longer than her younger brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that, ابر التخسيس while the advantage for women exists everywhere, the cross-country differences are large. In Russia, women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half a calendar year.

The female advantage in terms of life expectancy was lower in developed countries as compared to the present.
Let's examine how the advantage of women in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US between 1790 until 2014. Two areas stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men in America have longer lives than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be extremely small, but it grew substantially in the past century.

When you click on the option "Change country by country' in the chart, verify that these two points are applicable to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.