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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Ferne Sisk (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live much longer than men today and why has this advantage increased in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an absolute conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we do not know how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.

In spite of the precise weight, we know that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men in the present however not as in the past, has to do with the fact that certain important non-biological aspects have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, افضل كريم للشعر every country is above the diagonal line of parity - which means that in every country baby girls can expect to live longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart above shows that while the female advantage exists across all countries, the global differences are significant. In Russia women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the difference is less than half a calendar year.

In rich countries the female advantage in longevity used to be smaller
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart shows the male and female lifespans at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

There is an upward trend. and افضل كريم للشعر women in the US live much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be quite small, but it grew substantially during the last century.

You can confirm that these are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.