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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Merlin Dunstan (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women have a longer life span than men? And how is this difference growing in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to support a definitive conclusion. We know that biological, behavioral and ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; However, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور we're not sure what the contribution to each of these variables is.

In spite of how much amount, we can say that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men, but not in the past, is to do with the fact that certain key non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line ; this means in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart above shows that although the female advantage is present everywhere, global differences are significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men; in Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

In rich countries the women's advantage in longevity was not as great.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the time of birth in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two aspects stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. and women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy was once extremely small It has significantly increased over time.

27263.pngIf you select the option "Change country from the chart, you will be able to determine if these two points are also applicable to the other countries having available data: Sweden, France and the UK.