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Why women live longer than men?

Ava Scutt (2022-04-22)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women have a longer life span than men? And why does this benefit increase in the past? The evidence is limited and we only have limited solutions. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer life spans than men, However, we're not sure what the contribution to each of these variables is.

We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. But this is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can expect to live longer than her brothers.

This chart illustrates that, while there is a female advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men; in Bhutan the difference is just half each year.

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The advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was lower in countries with higher incomes than it is now.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two areas stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men in America have longer lives than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was extremely small, it has increased substantially over time.

It is possible to verify that these are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور and Sweden.