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Why are women living longer than men?

Kimberly Castleberry (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women live longer than men? Why the advantage has grown in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to support an absolute conclusion. Although we know that there are biological, psychological and environmental variables which all play a part in the longevity of women over men, we do not know how much each factor contributes.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason women live longer than men do today however not as previously, is to have to do with the fact that certain significant non-biological elements have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For صبغ الشعر بالاسود example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line - which means that in every country the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart shows that, although there is a women's advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be significant. In Russia, women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of less than half a calendar year.

In rich countries the women's advantage in longevity used to be smaller
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows male and صبغ الشعر بالاسود female life expectancies when they were born in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two aspects stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders living in America are living longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is growing: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was once tiny It has significantly increased over time.

You can verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.