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Why do women live longer than men?

Shawnee Kiley (2022-04-22)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men and how have these advantages gotten bigger over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make a definitive conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer life spans than men, However, we're not sure how strong the relative contribution of each of these factors is.

In spite of how much number of pounds, we know that at a minimum, the reason why women live so much longer than men but not in the past, has to do with the fact that several fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for علامات الحمل بولد men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line , it means that in all nations a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

14 hours agoThis chart shows that, although women have an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries could be significant. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan, the difference is just half a year.

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In countries with high incomes, the advantage of women in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows the men and women's life expectancies at the birth in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two specific points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US live much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: علامات الحمل بولد Although the female advantage in life expectancy used to be tiny, it has increased substantially over time.

You can confirm that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.