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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Sienna Wunderly (2022-04-22)

1 year agoEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men? And how the advantage has grown as time passes? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw an unambiguous conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, but we don't know exactly how much the influence of each one of these factors is.

We are aware that women live longer than males, افضل شامبو وبلسم ( regardless of weight. However it is not because of certain biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line - which means that in every country baby girls can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart illustrates that, while there is a female advantage throughout the world, افضل شامبو وبلسم the differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women are 10 years older than men, while in Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

In rich countries the longevity advantage for women was previously smaller.
Let's now look at the way that female advantages in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares the life expectancy of males and females when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two aspects stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Both men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was extremely small It has significantly increased in the past.

By selecting 'Change Country by country' in the chart, you can check that these two points apply to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.