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Why do women live longer than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-22)

1396090112554979612574084.jpgEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so more than men do today, and why has this advantage increased in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to reach an unambiguous conclusion. Although we know that there are biological, behavioral, and environmental factors which all play a part in women who live longer than men, we don't know how much each one contributes.

Independently of the exact weight, we know that at least a portion of the reason women live so much longer than men but not in the past, has to have to do with the fact that a number of important non-biological aspects have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, تحاميل مهبلية there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line - this means in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a new boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that although the female advantage exists everywhere, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men, while in Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

In the richer countries, تحاميل مهبلية the female advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies at the time of birth in the US in the years 1790-2014. Two specific points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Both genders in the United States live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy was once tiny It has significantly increased over time.

By selecting 'Change Country from the chart, you can check that these two points also apply to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.