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Why are women living longer than men?

Sienna Wunderly (2022-04-22)


1396090112554979612574084.jpgEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live more than men do today and how does this benefit increase in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw an absolute conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we aren't sure how much the influence of each factor is.

We have learned that women live longer than men, زيوت تطويل الشعر regardless of their weight. But it is not because of certain non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - this means in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a new boy.1

This graph shows that although there is a women's advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be substantial. In Russia women live for زيوت تطويل الشعر 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of less than half a calendar year.

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In countries with high incomes, the advantage of women in longevity was smaller
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female lifespans at birth in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there's an upward trend: Men and women in the US live much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used be very small however, it has increased significantly over the course of the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country by country' in the chart, verify that these two points are applicable to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.