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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Analisa Wingfield (2022-04-22)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women live longer than men? And why does this benefit increase in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't strong enough to make a definitive conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, but we don't know exactly what the contribution to each of these variables is.

It is known that women live longer than men, تحاميل مهبلية regardless of their weight. But, this is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her older brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that the advantage of women exists in all countries, difference between countries is huge. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men; in Bhutan the difference is less than half a year.

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The female advantage in life expectancy was smaller in rich countries as compared to the present.
Let's examine how the advantage of women in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy at the time of birth in the US between 1790 until 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. Men as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be very small however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

You can check if these are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.14 hours ago