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Why do women live longer than men?

Jett Alvarado (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live more than men do today and why have these advantages gotten bigger over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to support an unambiguous conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral and environmental factors which play a significant role in the longevity of women over men, we don't know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of how much weight, we know that at least part of the reason why women live so much longer than men today however not as previously, has to relate to the fact that a number of key non-biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for افضل شامبو وبلسم men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means that in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart above shows that, while the advantage for women is present everywhere, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was much lower in the richer countries than it is today.
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in America have longer lives than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very modest, but it grew substantially during the last century.

1 year agoBy selecting 'Change Country from the chart, check that these two points are also applicable to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.