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Why are women living longer than men?

Kimberly Castleberry (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present and why is this difference growing over time? There is only limited evidence and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور the evidence is not strong enough to make an unambiguous conclusion. We know there are behavioral, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور biological and environmental factors that play an integral role in women's longevity more than males, it isn't clear how much each factor contributes.

We know that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. But this isn't because of certain non-biological factors have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can be expected to live for longer than her brothers.

The chart below shows that although there is a women's advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of less than half a calendar year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was much lower in rich countries that it is today.
Let's look at how the advantage of women in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies at birth in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two specific points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both genders in the United States live longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is increasing: While the female advantage in life expectancy was quite small It has significantly increased in the past.

By selecting 'Change Country from the chart, you will be able to determine if these two points are applicable to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.