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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women live longer than men? What is the reason has this advantage gotten larger over time? There isn't much evidence and we have only some solutions. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women are healthier than men; but we don't know exactly how strong the relative contribution of each of these factors is.

In spite of the precise weight, we know that at least part of the reason why women live so much longer than men however not as previously, has to do with the fact that a number of significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for اضيق وضعية للجماع men and women. It is clear that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can expect to live longer than her younger brother.

Interestingly, اضيق وضعية للجماع this chart shows that the advantage of women is present everywhere, cross-country differences are large. In Russia women have a longer life span than men; in Bhutan the difference is just half each year.

The advantage for women in life expectancy was less in the richer countries as compared to the present.
Let's examine how the female advantage in longevity has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy at the birth in the US during the period 1790-2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both men and women in the US live a lot, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be very small but it increased substantially over the course of the last century.

If you select the option "Change country from the chart, you will be able to check that these two points also apply to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.