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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Lilliana Kobayashi (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? What is the reason the advantage has grown in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't strong enough to make an absolute conclusion. Although we know that there are behavioral, biological and environmental variables which play a significant role in women living longer than males, it isn't clear the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the amount of weight, we are aware that at least part of the reason why women live so much longer than men today however not as in the past, has to have to do with the fact that some important non-biological aspects have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for اوضاع الجماع survivors, اوضاع الجماع ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from every country could expect to live longer than her brothers.

It is interesting to note that the advantage of women is present everywhere, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the gap is less that half a year.

In the richer countries, the longevity advantage for women was not as great.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart plots the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was very small It has significantly increased with time.

By selecting 'Change Country in the chart, you can check that these two points apply to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.