Комментарии читателей

Why women live longer than men?

Analisa Wingfield (2022-04-22)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? Why does this benefit increase over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an absolute conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.

We know that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. However it is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line ; it means that in all nations that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart shows that, even though women enjoy an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries are often significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men, while in Bhutan the gap is just half each year.

__S.17__
__S.19__
The female advantage in life expectancy was much lower in the richer countries as compared to the present.
Let's look at the way that female advantages in longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two areas stand زيوت تطويل الشعر out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be extremely small however, it has increased significantly over the course of the last century.

You can verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.