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Why are women living longer than men?

Sienna Wunderly (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live more than men do today and why is this difference growing over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw an unambiguous conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we do not know how strong the relative contribution of each of these factors is.

ابر-التخسيس-1-728x409.jpgWe have learned that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. But it is not due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line , it means that in all nations that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a newborn boy.1

It is interesting to note that although the female advantage exists everywhere, the cross-country differences are large. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the difference is less than half a calendar year.

In wealthy countries, the advantage of women in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's look at the way that female advantages in longevity has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies at the birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two distinct points stand تحاميل مهبلية out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in the US are living much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was once quite small however, it has grown significantly with time.

It is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and تحاميل مهبلية Sweden.