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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-22)

Beauty-Cream-font-b-Serum-b-font-Anti-AgEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? And how is this difference growing as time passes? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not strong enough to make an unambiguous conclusion. We know there are biological, psychological and environmental variables that play an integral role in women who live longer than males, it isn't clear how much each one contributes.

We know that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. But it is not because of certain biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - this means that in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that, while the advantage for women is present everywhere, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was less in rich countries than it is now.
Let's examine how the advantage of women in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both men and women in the US live a lot, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, اضيق وضعية للجماع the gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was quite small It has significantly increased in the past.

Using the option 'Change country from the chart, you will be able to verify that these two points are applicable to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.