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Why do women live longer than men?

Roma Glaze (2022-04-22)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And how does this benefit increase as time passes? There isn't much evidence and we're only able to provide incomplete solutions. While we are aware that there are behavioral, biological and environmental factors that all play a role in women who live longer than males, it isn't clear the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of how much amount, we can say that at least a portion of the reason women live so much longer than men today however not as previously, is to do with the fact that certain key non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for ابر التخسيس men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl from every country could expect to live longer than her older brother.

Interestingly, this chart shows that while the female advantage exists in all countries, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of less than half a calendar year.

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In rich countries the advantage of women in longevity was smaller
Let's look at how the female advantage in longevity has changed with time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and ابر التخسيس men living in America are living longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used be very small but it increased substantially over the course of the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country from the chart, you are able to confirm that the two points are also applicable to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.