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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Leandro Tilton (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present and how is this difference growing over time? The evidence isn't conclusive and we're only able to provide some answers. Although we know that there are biological, psychological, and environmental factors which all play a part in women who live longer than males, we aren't sure how much each factor contributes.

It is known that women live longer than males, regardless of weight. But this is not because of certain biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, افضل شامبو وبلسم so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line , افضل شامبو وبلسم which means that in every country the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a newborn boy.1

It is interesting to note that the advantage of women is present everywhere, global differences are significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men; in Bhutan the difference is less than half each year.

In countries with high incomes, the longevity advantage for women used to be smaller
Let's examine how the female advantage in longevity has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US live much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used to be very modest but it increased substantially over the last century.

Using the option 'Change country' on the chart, determine if these two points apply to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.