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Why do women live longer than men?

Leandro Tilton (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live much longer than men today and how is this difference growing in the past? We only have partial evidence and ابر التخسيس the evidence is not sufficient to support an informed conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, but we don't know exactly how much the influence of each of these factors is.

It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. But this is not because of certain non-biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line - which means that in every country a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

The chart below shows that although women have an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences could be significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was less in the richer countries than it is today.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct features stand out.

There is an upward trend. and women in the US live a lot, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an increasing gap: ابر التخسيس The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be extremely small but it increased substantially over the course of the last century.

You can verify that these are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.