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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Leandro Tilton (2022-04-22)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men in the present, and why has this advantage increased in the past? The evidence isn't conclusive and we're only able to provide limited answers. While we are aware that there are biological, psychological and environmental factors which play a significant role in women's longevity more than men, we do not know how much each factor contributes.

We know that women are living longer than men, كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام regardless of their weight. However, this is not because of certain non-biological factors have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For كيفية ممارسة العلاقة الزوجية فى الاسلام example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in every country can be expected to live for longer than her brothers.

The chart above shows that the advantage of women exists everywhere, the global differences are significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men, while in Bhutan the gap is less than half each year.

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In countries with high incomes, the longevity advantage for women was smaller
Let's examine how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart shows the life expectancy of males and females when they were born in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two aspects stand out.

First, there's an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be quite small however, it has increased significantly over the course of the last century.

If you select the option "Change country by country' in the chart, verify that these two points are also applicable to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.