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Why are women living longer than men?

Sabine Biaggini (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women live longer than men? What is the reason does this benefit increase in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't strong enough to make an absolute conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, but we don't know exactly how much the influence of each one of these factors is.

We are aware that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. However, this is not because of certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and افضل شامبو وبلسم relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line - this means in all countries baby girls can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart shows that, while there is a female advantage across all countries, differences between countries could be significant. In Russia, women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan, the difference is less that half a year.

In rich countries the longevity advantage for افضل شامبو وبلسم women was not as great.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders in America live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the female advantage in life expectancy used to be tiny however, it has grown significantly in the past.

By selecting 'Change Country' on the chart, you are able to determine if these two points are also applicable to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.