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Why do women live longer than men?

Piper Niland (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور and why has this advantage increased over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn't strong enough to make an unambiguous conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know how much the influence of each of these factors is.

In spite of how much amount, we can say that a large portion of the reason why women live longer than men today, but not in the past, is to have to do with the fact that certain fundamental non-biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line - which means that in every country a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart below shows that while there is a female advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be substantial. In Russia women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of only half a year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was smaller in countries with higher incomes than it is now.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart compares the male and female lifespans at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both men as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور While the advantage of women in life expectancy was once tiny, it has increased substantially in the past.

51360170869_eccc7c82a5.jpgIf you select the option "Change country in the chart, you will be able to check that these two points are also applicable to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.