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Why do women live longer than men?

Hassie Blaze (2022-04-22)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men, and why has this advantage increased over time? The evidence isn't conclusive and we only have some solutions. Although we know that there are biological, behavioral and environmental factors which all play a part in women living longer than men, we do not know how much each one contributes.

We have learned that women live longer than males, افضل شامبو وبلسم regardless of weight. However this isn't due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, افضل شامبو وبلسم especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can anticipate to live longer than her younger brother.

This chart illustrates that, although women have an advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries are often significant. In Russia, women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the gap is less that half a year.

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The female advantage in terms of life expectancy was lower in rich countries than it is now.
Let's look at the way that female advantages in terms of longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men as well as women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be extremely small however, it has increased significantly during the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country from the chart, confirm that the two points apply to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.