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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Hassie Blaze (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women have a longer life span than men? And how does this benefit increase in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw an informed conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer life spans than men, however, we do not know what the contribution of each of these factors is.

We know that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. However, this is not because of certain biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and زيوت تطويل الشعر women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line ; this means in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

This graph shows that although there is a women's advantage in all countries, the differences across countries could be significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the gap is just half a year.

The advantage for women in life expectancy was much lower in rich countries than it is now.
We will now examine how the female advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US from 1790-2014. Two things stand out.

First, there's an upward trend: Men and women in the US live much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be extremely small, but it grew substantially in the past century.

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