Комментарии читателей

Why are women living longer than men?

Hassie Blaze (2022-04-22)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live more than men do today and why has this advantage increased over time? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to support an absolute conclusion. We know there are biological, psychological and environmental factors that all play a role in the longevity of women over males, it isn't clear what percentage each factor plays in.

We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. But it is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and افضل كريم للشعر women. We can see that every country is above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in all countries can be expected to live for longer than her brothers.

This chart shows that, although women have an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men, while in Bhutan the gap is just half an hour.

__S.17__
__S.19__
In rich countries the women's advantage in longevity was smaller
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below illustrates the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women living in America are living longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy used to be quite small It has significantly increased over time.

You can check if these are applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.