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Why do women live longer than men?

Hassie Blaze (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live more than men do today and why is this difference growing in the past? There isn't much evidence and we're only able to provide limited solutions. Although we know that there are biological, psychological, علامات الحمل بولد and environmental factors which all play a part in women who live longer than males, it isn't clear how much each one contributes.

We know that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. However it is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line - this means in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

13 \u0639\u0644\u0627\u0645\u0629 \u062a\u062f\u0644 \u0639\u0644\u0649 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u0644\u0644 \u0641\u064a \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0627\u0642\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629! | \u0627\u0644\u0631\u062c\u0644This graph shows that while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences are often significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men; in Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

The advantage for women in life expectancy was less in rich countries than it is today.
We will now examine how the female advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancies at birth in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two distinct features stand علامات الحمل بولد out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women living in America are living longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be extremely small however, it has increased significantly over the course of the last century.

If you select the option "Change country' on the chart, determine if these two points are applicable to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.