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Why do women live longer than men?

Cathryn Richter (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? And كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور why has this advantage gotten larger in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an informed conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; However, we're not sure how much the influence of each factor is.

We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. However it is not because of certain biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is above the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from every country could anticipate to live longer than her older brother.

This chart is interesting in that it shows that while the female advantage exists across all countries, the country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan the gap is less that half a year.

The advantage for women in life expectancy was much lower in developed countries than it is now.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancies at the time of birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women in the United States live longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used to be extremely small however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

If you select the option "Change country' on the chart, you can determine if these two points are also applicable to other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.