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Why women live longer than men?

Cathryn Richter (2022-04-22)

\u0627\u0633\u0631\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0628\u0646\u0627\u062a \u0644\u064a\u0644\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u062f\u062e\u0644\u0647Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women live longer than men? And how is this difference growing over time? The evidence isn't conclusive and we only have some solutions. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer life spans than men, but we don't know exactly how strong the relative contribution to each of these variables is.

It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. But this isn't due to the fact that certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line ; this means that in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a new boy.1

This chart illustrates that, although there is a women's advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women are 10 years older than men; in Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was smaller in countries with higher incomes than it is today.
We will now examine how the female advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancies at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. as well as women in the US are living much, العاب زوجية much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy was very small however, it has grown significantly over time.

You can confirm that these are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.