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Why women live longer than men?

Cathryn Richter (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live more than men do today and how does this benefit increase over time? The evidence is limited and we only have some answers. Although we know that there are biological, psychological and environmental variables which all play a part in women's longevity more than men, we don't know how much each factor زيوت تطويل الشعر contributes.

In spite of how much weight, we know that at least a portion of the reason women live longer than men do today however not as previously, is to do with the fact that some significant non-biological elements have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal line of parity - it means that in all nations that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a newborn boy.1

This graph shows that even though women enjoy an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be substantial. In Russia, women live for زيوت تطويل الشعر 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the gap is less than half a calendar year.

The advantage for women in life expectancy was less in developed countries that it is today.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two distinct features stand out.

There is an upward trend. Women and men in America have longer lives than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was once extremely small but it has risen significantly in the past.

You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries that have data by clicking the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.