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Why women live longer than men?

Cathryn Richter (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live much longer than men today and how has this advantage increased in the past? The evidence is limited and we have only some solutions. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral and environmental factors which play a significant role in women who live longer than males, we aren't sure the extent to which each factor اوضاع الجماع plays a role.

In spite of the precise weight, we know that at a minimum, the reason why women live so much longer than men do today however not as previously, is to be due to the fact that certain key non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, اوضاع الجماع there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl in every country can expect to live longer than her older brother.

This graph shows that although women have an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be significant. In Russia women are 10 years older than men; in Bhutan the gap is just half an hour.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in developed countries than it is today.
Let's examine how the advantage of women in life expectancy has changed over time. The chart below shows male and female life expectancy at the birth in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two aspects stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women in the United States live longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was tiny It has significantly increased with time.

When you click on the option "Change country in the chart, you are able to confirm that the two points apply to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.