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Why do women live longer than men?

Cathryn Richter (2022-04-22)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men in the present, افضل كريم للشعر and why has this advantage increased in the past? The evidence is limited and we only have partial solutions. While we are aware that there are biological, psychological, and environmental factors which all play a part in women living longer than men, we don't know how much each factor contributes.

We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. However this is not due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

\u0641\u0648\u0627\u0626\u062f \u0645\u0645\u0627\u0631\u0633\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0639\u0644\u0627\u0642\u0629 \u0627\u0644\u0632\u0648\u062c\u064a\u0629 \u0627\u062b\u0646\u0627\u0621 \u0627\u0644\u062d\u0645\u0644Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from every country could expect to live longer than her brothers.

This graph shows that while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than males; while in Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

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The female advantage in life expectancy was smaller in rich countries that it is today.
Let's look at how the gender advantage in longevity has changed with time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies at the time of birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Both genders living in America are living longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And افضل كريم للشعر second, there is a widening gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very modest however it increased dramatically in the past century.

You can confirm that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.