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Why are women living longer than men?

Hassie Blaze (2022-04-22)

random-160808070239-thumbnail-3.jpgEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men? Why does this benefit increase over time? The evidence is sketchy and we only have some answers. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral and environmental factors which play a significant role in the longevity of women over males, we aren't sure how much each one contributes.

It is known that women are living longer than men, ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور regardless of weight. However this isn't due to the fact that certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Certain are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line ; it means that in all nations that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that the advantage of women exists in all countries, global differences are significant. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan, the difference is less that half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in developed countries that it is today.
Let's now look at how the advantage of women in longevity has changed with time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies when they were born in the US in the years 1790-2014. Two things stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. and women in the US have a much longer life span longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very small however it increased dramatically during the last century.

You can verify that these are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.