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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Jetta Tedesco (2022-04-22)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women have a longer life span than men? And how is this difference growing as time passes? The evidence is sketchy and we only have some solutions. We know there are biological, behavioral and environmental variables that play an integral role in women living longer than males, we aren't sure how much each factor contributes.

It is known that women live longer than males, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور regardless of weight. But this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line , which means that in every country that a baby girl can be expected to live for كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart is interesting in that it shows that while the female advantage is present everywhere, global differences are significant. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of less that half a year.

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In rich countries the women's advantage in longevity was smaller
Let's now look at how the advantage of women in terms of longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two aspects stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders living in America are living longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be quite small however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

Using the option 'Change country in the chart, you can verify that these two points apply to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.