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Why are women living longer than men?

Hassie Blaze (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women have a longer life span than men? What is the reason is this difference growing as time passes? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not strong enough to make an informed conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women are healthier than men; however, we aren't sure how much the influence of each one of these factors is.

02.jpgWe have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. But this isn't due to the fact that certain biological factors have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and تحاميل مهبلية women. As we can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line - this means that in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart illustrates that, تحاميل مهبلية although there is a women's advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia, women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan the gap is only half a year.

The advantage for women in terms of life expectancy was lower in countries with higher incomes than it is now.
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancies at the birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in America live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, there's an ever-widening gap: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be quite small however, it has increased significantly over the last century.

Using the option 'Change country in the chart, confirm that the two points apply to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.