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Why do women live longer than men?

Cathryn Richter (2022-04-22)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men? What is the reason does this benefit increase in the past? There isn't much evidence and we only have incomplete answers. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral and environmental variables that all play a role in women who live longer than males, we aren't sure what percentage each factor اضيق وضعية للجماع plays in.

changemanagement-141101051710-conversionWe know that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. But this isn't due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. These variables are evolving. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can be expected to live for longer than her brother.

The chart above shows that although the female advantage is present everywhere, difference between countries is huge. In Russia, women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of only half a year.

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In the richer countries, the advantage of women in longevity used to be smaller
Let's look at how the advantage of women in longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the gender-based and female-specific life expectancy at the birth in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in the United States live longer than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, اضيق وضعية للجماع the gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was once tiny, it has increased substantially over time.

You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.