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Why do women live longer than men?

Hassie Blaze (2022-04-22)

كلبش رباعى ايد و رقبةEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women live longer than men? And how is this difference growing over time? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach an absolute conclusion. Although we know that there are biological, psychological, and environmental factors which all play a part in the longevity of women over males, it isn't clear the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of how much amount of weight, we are aware that at a minimum, the reason women live so much longer than men do today however not as previously, is to be due to the fact that some important non-biological aspects have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This means that a newborn girl from every country could be expected to live for longer than her brothers.

This graph shows that even though women enjoy an advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia, women live for اوضاع الجماع 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan the difference is only half a year.

In rich countries the advantage of women in longevity used to be smaller
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart shows the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two points stand out.

There is an upward trend. and women in the US live much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was once very small but it has risen significantly with time.

You can confirm that these principles are also applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.