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Why do women live longer than men?

Cathryn Richter (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men, and why is this difference growing in the past? We only have partial evidence and the evidence isn't strong enough to make an absolute conclusion. We are aware that behavioral, افضل شامبو وبلسم biological and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we do not know what the contribution of each one of these factors is.

In spite of how much amount, we can say that at least a portion of the reason why women live longer than men in the present and not previously, is to relate to the fact that a number of key non-biological factors have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line - it means that in all nations a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a new boy.1

47101472804_202f3d135c.jpgIt is interesting to note that the advantage of women exists everywhere, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women are 10 years older than men, while in Bhutan the difference is just half each year.

In rich countries the female advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's examine how the gender advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares the life expectancy of males and females when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two areas stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. as well as women in the US are living much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was very small It has significantly increased in the past.

You can check if these are applicable to other countries with data by clicking the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.