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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Cathryn Richter (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men and how does this benefit increase in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an informed conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, However, we're not sure how significant the impact of each of these factors is.

It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. However this is not due to the fact that certain biological or non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl from every country could anticipate to live longer than her younger brother.

This chart shows that, although there is a women's advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of just half a year.

The advantage for women in terms of life expectancy was lower in developed countries that it is today.
Let's now look at how the gender advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows the men and women's life expectancies at birth in the US in the years 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. Men and women in America live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy used to be very small, it has increased substantially in the past.

You can verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have information by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.2 years ago