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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Piper Niland (2022-04-22)

51360170869_eccc7c82a5.jpgEverywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live much longer than men today, and why has this advantage increased over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach an informed conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, However, we're not sure how strong the relative contribution to each of these variables is.

In spite of the precise number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason women live longer than men in the present, but not in the past, علامات الحمل بولد is to relate to the fact that a number of significant non-biological elements have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, علامات الحمل بولد ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line - this means that in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a newborn boy.1

This chart is interesting in that it shows that the advantage of women exists in all countries, cross-country differences are large. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than males; while in Bhutan the gap is just half one year.

In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity was previously smaller.
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart compares the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two aspects stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both genders in America have longer lives than they were a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was very small, it has increased substantially in the past.

It is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.