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Why are women living longer than men?

Merlin Dunstan (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women have a longer life span than men? And how does this benefit increase in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an absolute conclusion. We know there are behavioral, biological as well as environmental factors that play an integral role in women's longevity more than males, we aren't sure what percentage each factor افضل كريم للشعر plays in.

In spite of how much number of pounds, we know that at least part of the reason women live so much longer than men do today however not as in the past, has to have to do with the fact that some significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these changing factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a new boy.1

This chart shows that, although women have an advantage across all countries, differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia, women live 10 years more than males. In Bhutan there is a difference of less that half a year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was less in countries with higher incomes that it is today.
Let's now look at how the female advantage in longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and افضل كريم للشعر 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there's an upward trend: Men as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is getting wider: Although the female advantage in life expectancy used to be tiny, it has increased substantially in the past.

47101472804_202f3d135c.jpgBy selecting 'Change Country by country' in the chart, you are able to confirm that the two points also apply to the other countries having available information: Sweden, France and the UK.