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Why do women live longer than men?

Merlin Dunstan (2022-04-22)

\u0623\u0641\u0636\u0644 \u062a\u062d\u0627\u0645\u064a\u0644 \u0645\u0647\u0628\u0644\u064a\u0647 \u0644\u0644\u0625\u0644\u062a\u0647\u0627\u0628\u0627\u062a \u0627\u0644\u0641\u0637\u0631\u064a\u0647 6 \u0623\u0646\u0648\u0627\u0639 \u0623\u0641\u0636\u0644\u0647\u0627 \u0627\u0644\u062b\u0627\u0646\u0649Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live so longer than men in the present, and why have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to reach an informed conclusion. While we are aware that there are behavioral, biological, and environmental factors that play an integral role in women's longevity more than men, we don't know what percentage each factor plays in.

In spite of how much amount, we can say that at least part of the reason women live longer than men but not previously, is to be due to the fact that some important non-biological aspects have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

The chart below shows that while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be substantial. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the gap is less than half a year.

The female advantage in life expectancy was much lower in developed countries as compared to the present.
Let's look at how the female advantage in longevity has changed over time. The next chart compares male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two aspects stand اضيق وضعية للجماع,, out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women living in America are living longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is a widening gap: اضيق وضعية للجماع The female advantage in life expectancy used be very modest however it increased dramatically during the last century.

When you click on the option "Change country by country' in the chart, you will be able to check that these two points are applicable to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.