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Why do women live longer than men?

Merlin Dunstan (2022-04-22)

\u0627\u0633\u0639\u0627\u0631 \u0627\u0641\u0636\u0644 5 \u0627\u0646\u0648\u0627\u0639 \u0643\u0631\u064a\u0645 \u0644\u0644\u0634\u0639\u0631 \u0627\u0644\u0645\u062c\u0639\u062f \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062c\u0627\u0641 \u0648\u0627\u0644\u062f\u0647\u0646\u064a ...Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live much longer than men today, and why does this benefit increase in the past? The evidence isn't conclusive and we have only partial answers. Although we know that there are biological, psychological and environmental factors that all play a role in women living longer than men, we do not know what percentage each factor plays in.

Independently of the exact amount of weight, we are aware that at least a portion of the reason women live longer than men do today and not previously, has to be due to the fact that several key non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal line of parity - which means that in every country baby girls can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1

Interestingly, this chart shows that, while the advantage for women is present everywhere, كيفية إقامة علاقة بالصور cross-country differences are large. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the difference is just half a year.

The advantage for women in life expectancy was much lower in developed countries as compared to the present.
Let's now look at how the gender advantage in life expectancy has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female lifespans when they were born in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

First, there is an upward trend. and women in the US live a lot, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is widening: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was quite small however, it has grown significantly with time.

Using the option 'Change country' on the chart, you can check that these two points are also applicable to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.