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Why do women have longer lives than men?

Merlin Dunstan (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What makes women live longer than men in the present, زيوت تطويل الشعر and why have these advantages gotten bigger over time? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not strong enough to make an informed conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we do not know how much the influence of each of these factors is.

In spite of the amount of weight, we are aware that at least a portion of the reason women live so much longer than men today and not in the past, has to be due to the fact that some important non-biological aspects have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line , this means in all countries that a baby girl can be expected to live for longer than a newborn boy.1

بودرة نكهات الجسمThis chart illustrates that, although there is a women's advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men, while in Bhutan the difference is less than half a year.

In the richer countries, the longevity advantage for women was smaller
Let's look at how female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancy at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. and women in the US live much, زيوت تطويل الشعر much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in terms of life expectancy was quite small however, it has grown significantly over time.

When you click on the option "Change country in the chart, you are able to verify that these two points are also applicable to the other countries with available information: Sweden, France and the UK.