Комментарии читателей

Why do women live longer than men?

Merlin Dunstan (2022-04-22)


Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women live longer than men? And how is this difference growing in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence is not sufficient to support an unambiguous conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we do not know what the contribution of each factor is.

We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of weight. But, this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for العاب زوجية men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl from any country can anticipate to live longer than her younger brother.

This chart shows that, although there is a women's advantage across all countries, differences between countries could be significant. In Russia, women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan there is a difference of less that half a year.

__S.17__
__S.19__
In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity was smaller
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. and women in the US live a lot, العاب زوجية much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

And second, there is an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used be very small but it increased substantially in the past century.

When you click on the option "Change country in the chart, you will be able to check that these two points apply to other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.