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Why are women living longer than men?

Wilford Tufnell (2022-04-22)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men, and why have these advantages gotten bigger in the past? We only have a few clues and the evidence isn't sufficient to reach a definitive conclusion. While we are aware that there are biological, behavioral and environmental variables that play an integral role in women's longevity more than males, it isn't clear what percentage each factor plays in.

Independently of the exact amount, we can say that at least a portion of the reason why women live longer than men do today but not previously, has to have to do with the fact that certain significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these new factors? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for افضل شامبو وبلسم survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in every country can anticipate to live longer than her brother.

This graph shows that although women have an advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be significant. In Russia women live for 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the gap is only half a year.

The advantage women had in life expectancy was smaller in developed countries than it is today.
Let's examine the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct points stand out.

First, there is an upward trend: Men and افضل شامبو وبلسم women in the US live much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is increasing: While the advantage of women in life expectancy used to be extremely small however, it has grown significantly in the past.

You can verify that these are applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.