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Why women are more likely to live longer than men?

Ferne Sisk (2022-04-21)

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the main reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And why has this advantage gotten larger over time? The evidence is sketchy and we only have some solutions. We are aware that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we do not know how much the influence to each of these variables is.

We have learned that women are living longer than men, افضل شامبو وبلسم regardless of weight. But, this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and افضل شامبو وبلسم women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line ; this means in all countries the newborn girl is likely to live longer than a newborn boy.1

It is interesting to note that while the female advantage exists everywhere, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men; in Bhutan the difference is just half an hour.

In the richer countries, the longevity advantage for women used to be smaller
Let's now look at how the female advantage in longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US between 1790 to 2014. Two things stand out.

There is an upward trend. Both men and women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is widening: While the female advantage in life expectancy was once quite small It has significantly increased over time.

By selecting 'Change Country from the chart, you are able to determine if these two points apply to the other countries with available data: Sweden, France and the UK.JPT.jpg