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Why are women living longer than men?

Lilliana Kobayashi (2022-04-21)


tafsiribnukatsirmuhaqqoq001-110113010227Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live longer than men, and why does this benefit increase in the past? The evidence isn't conclusive and we have only some answers. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, but we don't know exactly how much the influence to each of these variables is.

We are aware that women live longer than males, زيوت تطويل الشعر regardless of weight. However this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, زيوت تطويل الشعر especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can be expected to live for longer than her older brother.

This graph shows that although women have an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences are often significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than males; while in Bhutan the difference is less than half an hour.

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In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity used to be smaller
We will now examine the way that female advantages in longevity has changed with time. The next chart plots male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. and women in the US live much, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is getting wider: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy used to be quite small, it has increased substantially over time.

You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.